- Preaching the Living WORD through the Written WORD - 2 Tim 4:2 -
Koine Greek Verbs (brief summary)
I. GREEK TENSES
A. PRESENT TENSE: •Imagine a video camera shooting film now•
1. It describes ongoing and continuous action (Mt. 25:8 “are going out”).
2. It also describes an undefined kind of action (Mt 3:11 - “I baptize” or “I am baptizing”).
3. It describes an action that usually occurs in the present time (1Jo 5:12 - “is having [now]”).
B. IMPERFECT TENSE: •Imagine a video camera shooting film yesterday•
1. It describes ongoing and continuous action in the past (Mk 12:41 “was watching”; “were throwing”)
2. The time element is more prominent in the imperfect than in the present (Lk 3:10 “were asking questions” or “used to ask questions”; Acts 2:42-47 customary imperfects).
C. FUTURE TENSE: •Imagine a camera that will take a snapshot•
It describes more of a future
event than of continuous action (Lk 1:13 “will give”;
2. The element of time is very pronounced (Jn 14:26 “will send”; “will teach”; “will remind”).
D. AORIST TENSE: •Imagine a camera that took a snapshot•
1. It describes action simply as an event or a point in time, normally in the past (2 Cor. 8:9 “became poor”; Eph 6:11 “Put on”).
2. It can describe an event in its entirety (Jn. 2:20 “was built”).
E. PERFECT TENSE: •Imagine a camera that took a snapshot but continues to show the picture•
1. It describes completed action with present effects (Rom 14:23 "is condemned").
2. Emphasis, may be on either the completed action or on its finished results (Ac 5:28, "you have filled").
3. Probably one of the most precious examples of the perfect tense is (John 19:30 “it is finished”; “it has been finished and continues to be finished”; Jn 5:24 "has passed").
F. PLUPERFECT TENSE: •Imagine a camera that took a snapshot and continued to show the picture but stopped at some point•
1. It describes completed action with further completed effects (Re 7:11 "were standing").
2. There are only 82 verbs in N.T. that appear in the pluperfect tense (Lu 2:49 "Did you not know").
II. GREEK VOICE
A. ACTIVE VOICE - The subject initiates the action of the verb (I know; 1Co 13:12).
B. MIDDLE VOICE - The subject initiates the action of the verb upon himself (I will know for myself; 1Co 13:12).
C. PASSIVE VOICE - The subject receives the action of the verb (I have been known; 1Co 13:12).
III. GREEK MOODS
A. INDICATIVE MOOD •Imagine a camera that you are certain is in someone's possession•
1. It is the mood that declares simple fact or certainty (Jn 5:12 "They asked"; Eph 4:1 "have been called").
2. It does not necessarily declare whether something is true or untrue (Mk 3:22 "He casts out").
B. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD •Imagine a camera that probably is in someone's possession•
1. It is the mood that expresses probability (Mt 5:23 "if you are").
2. It is expressed sometimes in exhortation (Heb 4:16 "Let us draw near").
C. OPTATIVE MOOD •Imagine a camera that possibly could be in someone's possession•
1. It is the mood that suggests possibility (“May the Lord direct”, 2 Thes 3:5; Ac 17:18 “wish to say”).
It is most often used as a
literary mood (mē genoito, “By
no means”, Ro 3:4,6; 6:2; 1Co 6:15; Ga 2:17. Note: The
D. IMPERATIVE MOOD •Imagine a camera that you command someone to take into their possession•
1. It is the mood that asserts a command (Mt 5:44 “Love your enemies”).
2. It is the mood of volition and appeals to the will (Jn 6:20 “Don't be afraid”; Lk 17:5 "Increase our faith!").