“Preaching the Living Word through the Written Word (2Tim 4:2)”
STUDY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT
Grace Bible Church, Gillette, Wyoming
Pastor Daryl Hilbert
I. THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT
A. The Study of the Holy Spirit (Pneumatology) has an important place in the study of theology mainly because the Holy Spirit is the third divine Person of the Godhead. Since all members of the Godhead are equally deity, each member deserves an equal place in the study of God.
B. The Study of the Holy Spirit is consequential because the ministry of the third Person of the Godhead is specifically to the church.
C. The scope of the study of the Holy Spirit looks at the deity of the Holy Spirit, the Holy Spirit’s ministry in the OT, NT, the life of Jesus and the lives of believers. It directly relates to certain key terms such as regeneration and indwelling. The study also covers the fruit of the Spirit and the gifts of the Spirit.
II. THE HOLY SPIRIT IS A PERSONAL BEING
A. In the study of the Holy Spirit. It must first be proved that the Spirit is not a mere inanimate object or force. He is indeed not a force but a personal being. This is demonstrated and proved by various means.
1. The Holy Spirit has intellect
a) The Holy Spirit has the ability to search the depths of God (1Co 2:10).
b) The Holy Spirit has the ability to search the hearts of men (Ro 8:27).
c) The Holy Spirit has intellect and the ability to communicate (1Co 2:11, 13).
2. The Holy Spirit has emotion
a) The Holy Spirit can be grieved (Ep 4:30).
b) The Holy Spirit can be insulted (He 10:29).
3. The Holy Spirit has volition (will)
a) The Holy Spirit has the will to distribute gifts as He pleases (1Co 12:11).
b) The Holy Spirit has the will to forbid man’s direction (Ac 16:6-7).
4. The Holy Spirit displays action
a) The Holy Spirit guides into truth (Jn 16:13).
b) The Holy Spirit convicts men of sin (Jn 16:8).
c) The Holy Spirit performs miracles (Ac 8:39).
d) The Holy Spirit prays for saints (Ro 8:26).
5. The Holy Spirit has ascriptions
a) The Holy Spirit is to be obeyed (Ac 10:19-21).
b) The Holy Spirit can be lied to (Ac 5:3).
c) The Holy Spirit can be resisted (Ac 7:51).
d) The Holy Spirit can be blasphemed (Mt 12:31).
B. It can be shown from a grammatical consideration that the Holy Spirit is a personal being.
1. The Greek word for “spirit” is pneuma and is a neuter noun. However, when the NT speaks about the hagion pneuma (Holy Spirit), it uses a masculine pronoun for Him.
2. Jn 16 13 is a prime example. It is translated, “He” in the phrase, “But when He, the Spirit of truth, comes,” because “He” is the masculine demonstrative pronoun ekeinos. The plain inference is that even though the NT writers could have used an neuter pronoun, they chose to be theologically correct and used a masculine pronoun.
a) Note ekeinos is a masculine demonstrative pronoun, though followed by neuter pneuma in apposition. (Robertson’s Word Pictures)
b) It is more evident therefore in this passage that John is insisting on the personality of the Holy Spirit, when the grammatical gender so easily called for ekeino [the neuter demonstrative pronoun]. (Robertson, Grammar of the Greek NT).
c) For the same emphatic masculine pronoun, compare Jn 14:26; Jn 15:26 and Jn 16:7-8, 14.
III. THE HOLY SPIRIT IS A DIVINE BEING
A. The Holy Spirit’s Deity is Demonstrated by His Association with the Trinity.
1. Though the word “trinity” is not found in the Bible, it is a biblical concept.
2. It could be defined as one God yet subsisting in three distinct Persons as God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit; not a tritheism or three Gods, but a triunity
3. Each member of the Trinity is deity. To say therefore, that the Holy Spirit is a member of the Trinity, is to say that the Holy Spirit is God.
4. The Scriptures clearly support the concept of the Trinity:
a) The Trinity, and therefore the deity of the Holy Spirit, is seen in the name Elohim (Ge 1:2, 26).
(1) Elohim is the plural of elōah (God) and is thought by some to be a “plural of majesty” as a description of multiple attributes.
(2) But a better reason can be seen in Scripture itself where, in the very first chapter of Gen, the necessity of a term conveying both the unity of the one God and yet allowing for a plurality of persons is found (Gen 1:2, 26). This is further borne out by the fact that the form °§lœhîm occurs only in Hebrew and in no other Semitic language, not even in Biblical Aramaic (Gustav F. Oehler, Theology of the Old Testament, p. 88).
(3) This is further supported by the use of the plural pronouns “us” and “our” (Ge 1:26).
(a) [Ge 1:26 and the use of “us” and “our”] The first clear indication of the triunity of God (cf. 3:22; 11:7) (MSB)
b) The great Shema (Heb. word for ‘hear”), repeated twice daily by devout Jews, argues for the deity of the Holy Spirit.
(1) Dt 6:4 reads, Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD is one.
(2) The Heb. word for “one” is echad, which does mean one, can also carry the concept of diversity within unity such the tabernacle sections (Ex 26:6; 36:13) or the “one flesh” of Adam and Eve (Ge 2:24).
(3) In the famous Shema of Deut 6:4, "Hear, O Israel... the LORD is one," the question of diversity within unity has theological implications. Some scholars have felt that, though "one" is singular, the usage of the word allows for the doctrine of the Trinity. (TWOT)
c) The Trinity affirmed Jesus as Messiah at His baptism but also showed the Holy Spirit as the third member of the Godhead (Mt 3:16-17; Mk 1:10; Lk 3:22; Jn 1:32)
(1) There can be no doubt that all three persons of the Trinity are actively involved here as distinct persons of the Godhead. The Father speaks, the Spirit descends, the Son is baptized. (KJV Bible Commentary)
d) The Holy Spirit is an equal member in the ordinance of baptism and therefore proves that He is deity (Mt 28:19). The order, “Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit” does not denote inequality among the members of the Trinity, but rather the divinely suggested order of mention.
B. The Holy Spirit’s Deity is Demonstrated by His Ascriptions
1. The Holy Spirit is identified as Yahweh and Adonai of the OT (Ac 28:25-26 cp. Isa 6:8-10).
a) The Holy Spirit is identified with the “voice of the Lord” (Ac 28:25 cp. Is 6:8) and as a Divine Commissioner (“Whom shall I send” - Is 6:8a, “Go and tell this people” - Is 6:9a).
b) The Holy Spirit would then be identified not only as one of the “Us,” but the prime Speaker in this case (Is 6:8 cp. Ge 1:26).
c) This would also argue that seraphim’s “Holy, Holy, Holy” mantra would be applied to each member of the Godhead (Is 6:3).
2. The Holy Spirit’s deity is proposed in the same vein in that He is not only the author of Scripture, but at times the Divine Speaker (in ref. to the New Covenant: He 10:15-17 cp. Je 31:33-34. Cp. also Ac 4:25-26 w/ Ps 2:1)
3. Because He is a member of the Godhead, lying to the Holy Spirit is equivalent to lying to God (Ac 5:3-4).
4. Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to His disciples and the Church (Jn 14:16).
a) Jesus would send “another” (allos) of the same kind (heteros - “another of a different kind”).
b) The Holy Spirit was “another” (allos) Divine Helper, the same as Christ.
c) The Holy Spirit was another Divine Paraklete (paraklêtos - one called alongside, i.e Comforter) Who would comfort everyone in the body of Christ.
5. Some of the names for the Spirit confirm the deity of Christ.
a) “Spirit of the Lord” (OT & Lk 4:18; Ac 5:9; 8:39; 2Co 3:17)
b) “Spirit of God” (OT & Matt. 3:16; 12:28; Rom. 8:9,14; 1 Co. 2:11,14; 3:16; 7:40; 12:3; Eph. 4:30; Phil. 3:3; 1 Jn. 4:2)
c) “Spirit of the living God” (2Co 3:3)
d) “Spirit of His Son” (Ga 4:6)
e) “Spirit of Jesus” (Ac 16:7)
f) “Spirit of Christ” (Ro 8:9; 1Pe 1:11)
g) “Spirit of Jesus Christ” (Phi 1:19)
h) “The Spirit” (His own distinct identification - Mt 4:1; 12:31; Mk 1:10, 12; Lk 2:27; 4:1; Jn 1:33; 3:6; 6:63; 7:39; Ac 2:4; 8:18; 10:19; Ro 7:6; 8:4; 5, 6, 11, 16, 23, 26, 27; 15:19; 1Co 2:10; 12:7; 2Co 3:6; 5:5; )
i) Rom 8:9-11: “the Spirit,” “Spirit of God,” “Spirit of Christ,” “Christ,” “Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead,” and “His Spirit.”
C. The Holy Spirit’s Deity is Demonstrated by His Actions
1. The Holy Spirit was a Divine Agent involved with creation.
a) He is depicted as “moving” over the surface of the waters. The Hebrew word for “moving” is rachaph which is translated as “hover” in the NIV, and in other passages “fluttereth” in Dt 32:11(KJV), and “tremble” in Je 23:9.
b) In Ge 1:2 the word is an intensive Hebrew verb and gives the idea of vibrate or brood. It speaks of the contemplative creative action of the third person of the Trinity.
2. The Holy Spirit was the Divine Agent in Christ’s virgin birth (Lk 1:35).
3. The Holy Spirit was the Divine Agent in the inspiration of Scriptures (2 Pet 1:21).
4. The Holy Spirit is the Divine Agent involved with the spiritual regeneration of believers (Jn 3:6).
5. The Holy Spirit is the Divine Agent involved with the sanctification of believers (2 Th 2:13).
IV. THE HOLY SPIRIT’S MINISTRY IN THE OT
A. The approximately 100 references to the Spirit of God in Old Testament give evidence of His working during that period. (Ryrie, Basic Theology, p. 399; the word “spirit” is used approx. 218 times total in OT)
B. The Holy Spirit is specifically named in the OT
1. “Holy Spirit” (3 times, Ps 51:11; Is 63:10-11)
2. “Spirit of the LORD” (22 times, Jud 3:10; 1Sa 16:13)
3. “Spirit of God” (12 times; Ex 35:31; Ez 11:24)
4. “Spirit” (14 times, Nu 11:17; 27:18)
5. “My Spirit” (15 times, Is 30:1; Ze 4:6)
6. “His Spirit” (8 times, Job 34:14-15; Ps 106:33)
C. The Holy Spirit’s specific work in creation is seen in the OT.
1. In the general planning of the Universe (Isa 40:12-14).
2. In the creation the animals (Ps. 104:30).
3. In the creation of man (Job 33:4).
D. The Holy Spirit’s specific work in Inspiration is seen in the OT.
1. The OT prophets spoke through the agency of the Spirit (Zec 7:12; Micah 3:8; 2Sa 23:2).
2. The agency of the Spirit in inspiration in the OT is attested to by Jesus (Mt 22:43-44 cp. Ps 110:1)
3. The writer of Hebrews gives credit to the Holy Spirit for inspiration in the OT (He 3:7 cp. Ps 95:7; He 9:8 cp. Le 16; He 10:15-16 cp. Je 31:33).
E. The Holy Spirit was seen in relation to people in the OT.
1. The Spirit had an OT & NT ministry (Jn 14:17).
2. A different and special ministry of the Holy Spirit was prophesied by Jesus after Pentecost (Jn 15:26; 16:7-8, 13).
3. Some were temporarily filled with the Spirit for special purposes in the OT (Ex 31:3; 35:31).
4. Some special individuals were filled with the Spirit in the OT (Ge 41:38; Nu 27:18; Judg 14:6, 19).
5. Permanent filling was not guaranteed for anyone in the OT (Judg 16:20, 1Sa 16:14; Ps 51:11).
V. THE HOLY SPIRIT’S MINISTRY AND CHRIST
A. In His Life
1. Christ was “full of the Holy Spirit” (Lk 4:1) which meant that He was not only “filled with the Spirit” (cp. Ep 5:18), but it was the characteristic of His life (cp. Ac 6:3, 5).
2. Christ was anointed by the Spirit (Lk 4:18; Ac 4:27 ).
a) The term “anointed” refers to Christ’s title and Messiahship. The name “Christ” is the Greek transliteration Christos and comes from the root chriō which means to “anoint” as in appoint and inaugurate (cp. 1Sa 16:13; 2Sa 5:3; 12:7). Jesus was appointed and inaugurated as “the Christ” (Anointed One, i.e Messiah).
b) The anointing was the Holy Spirit Himself upon Christ (Ac 10:38).
3. Christ was empowered by the Spirit in general (Lk 4:18; cp. Isa 42:1-4; 61:1-2).
a) The Messiah was also empowered by the Holy Spirit “to preach,” “to give recovery of sight,” and “to set captives free”.
b) This anointing and empowerment identified Jesus as the Messiah.
4. Christ “rejoiced greatly” in the Spirit (Lk 10:21).
a) Christ lived in the power of the Spirit.
b) This rejoicing was no doubt an evidence of the filling of the Holy Spirit.
B. In His Birth
1. Christ’s birth (humanity, not deity) came as a result of the Holy Spirit’s ministry (Mt 1:18).
2. The mysterious conception of Mary by the Holy Spirit is described in Lk 1:35 as an overshadowing (episkiazō).
a) It is analogous of the Holy Spirit’s divine creation in Ge 1:2 (“moving” - LXX epipherō - to bring upon).
b) It is analogous to the cloud over the tabernacle (Ex 40:35).
c) It emphasized Jesus as Messiah (Mt 1:20-23) and sinless (“holy”).
C. In His Ministry
1. Christ received the Holy Spirit in the beginning of His ministry to identify Him as the Messiah (Jn 1:31-34 cp. Is 42:1)
2. Christ was a prophet in the Spirit (Lk 4:18)
3. Christ performed some miracles through the Spirit.
a) Christ gave sight to the blind through the Spirit (Mt 9:27-31; 11:5; 12:22; 15:30; 20:33-34; 21:14; Mk 8:22-26; 10:51-52; Lk 18:35; Jn 9:6-7).
b) When Jesus gave sight to the blind, it was a clear indication that He was deity (Ex 4:11; Ps 146:8) and the Messiah (Isa 29:18; 35:5; 42:7 cp. *Lk 7:19-22).
c) Some of His miracles and power were performed through His own authority (the woman who touched the hem of His garment - Mk 5:30; the healing of the paralytic - Lk 5:17; the Transfiguration - Mt 17:2; and the Garden of Gethsemane - Jn 18:6).
d) [Christ] did depend on the Spirit for leading and for power, in some of the miracles at least. If the sinless Son of God used these ministries of the Holy Spirit, how can we expect to live independently of His power? (Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, pg. 407).
D. In His Death and Resurrection
1. The Holy Spirit was instrumental in Christ’s death (He 9:14).
a) Some see the “eternal Spirit” as Christ’s own divine spirit. This is based on the fact that in this passage in the Greek, there is no article before spirit.
b) However, there are many who interpret “eternal Spirit” as the Holy Spirit and with good reason.
(1) It is possible grammatically to refer to the Holy Spirit even though there is no article. In fact, He 2:4 and 6:4 are without the article and refer quite definitely to the Holy Spirit.
(2) Theologically, the Holy Spirit, as a member of the Godhead, would have a role in all of Christ’s activities, including leading Him from birth to the cross (Isa 42:1).
(3) The simple context itself would lead the reader to the identification of the Holy Spirit.
2. The Holy Spirit was instrumental in Christ’s Resurrection (Rom 8:11).
a) The Holy Spirit is attributed with many other works which the Godhead performed (ex. Creation).
b) The other members of the Godhead are attributed with the resurrection and so is the Holy Spirit.
(1) The Father resurrected Christ (Ep 1:17-20).
(2) The Son was instrumental in His own resurrection (Jn 10:17-18).
(3) The Spirit resurrected Christ (Ro 8:11; 1Pe 3:18).
VI. THE HOLY SPIRIT’S MINISTRY IN THE WORLD
A. The Holy Spirit Has A Convicting Ministry In The World (Jn 16:8-11).
1. Christ told us that one of the ministries of the Holy Spirit, when He came, was going to be a convicting ministry. “Convict” comes from the Greek word elégchō and means generally to show someone that they have done something wrong in order to bring light and repentance (cp. Jn 3:20). The Spirit, therefore, reveals sin in the world which is against God or His Word.
2. He specifically convicts the unbelieving “world” (kosmos cp. Jn 3:16) so that they might believe (8). He convicts the world of their sin (primarily unbelief) and their need for a Savior (9).
a) Thus the convicting work of the Spirit is the placing of the truth of the gospel in a clear light before the unsaved person so he acknowledges it as truth whether or not he receives Christ as personal Saviour. Conviction is making the message clear, not the saving of the soul—that’s regeneration. (Ryrie, A Survey of Bible Doctrine)
b) The Holy Spirit also convicts (same Greek word but translated “correction” in 2Ti 3:16) the believer but in the sense of correcting and sanctifying him through the instruction and preaching of the Scriptures (2Ti 4:2). The Holy Spirit’s convicting ministry plays a major role as to what should take place during worship (preaching the Word and conviction).
3. He convicts the world (8, 10) of falling short of God’s righteousness (Ro 3:23) and of its own sin of self-righteousness so that the world might believe and avail themselves of Christ’s imputed righteousness (Ph 3:9).
4. The Holy Spirit convicts the world of God’s judgment upon it (8, 11) in view of the fact that Satan, the god of this world has been judged (1Jn 3:8) and that the world has not believed on the Savior (Jn 3:18).
B. The Holy Spirit Has A Restraining Ministry In The World (Jn 16:8-11).
1. In 2Th 2:6-7, we read of a “restrainer” (katéchō - lit. “hold down” or hold back) who is holding something back and preventing certain events from taking place. Though the text does not say who the restrainer is, there are many who take it to mean the Holy Spirit (Walvoord, Pentecost, Gromacki, Ryrie, and LaHaye).
a) The sovereign, divine force that currently restrains Antichrist is exerted by a person—the Holy Spirit (cf. John 14:26; 15:26; 16:13 where Jesus used a masculine pronoun with the neuter noun translated “Spirit”). Only He has the supernatural power to hold Satan in check. The Holy Spirit has always battled wickedness in the world. (MacArthur’s Commentary, 1 & 2 Thessalonians (278–279).
2. Other views are human government, preaching, binding of Satan, the church, and Michael the archangel.
3. There are good arguments to support not only that the restrainer is the Holy Spirit, but that He is presently holding back sin in the world to a degree.
a) The Holy Spirit has held back sin according to the Scriptures (Ge 6:3; Is 59:19; Jn 16:8-11; Ac 7:51; 2Th 2:3).
b) The Holy Spirit, being a divine Person, is the only sufficient Person able to hold back sin.
c) The Holy Spirit indwells the church and the Antichrist will not appear until after the Rapture and the removal of the church. The Holy Spirit is omnipresent and is unable to leave. However, the Holy Spirit has come with a special ministry to the church. When the church is removed in the Rapture, so is the Holy Spirit’s special ministry.
4. Therefore it could be argued that the Holy Spirit, along with His presence within the church, is to some degree “holding down” the level of sin in the world. But when the church is removed, sin and the antichrist will no longer be restrained.
VII. THE HOLY SPIRIT’S MINISTRY TO THE BELIEVER
A. The Holy Spirit Regenerates The Unbeliever Into A Believer And Imparts New Life.
1. Definitions of Regeneration
a) Regeneration is the act of the Holy Spirit, whereby he imparts new life and a divine nature.
b) Through the ministry of the Holy Spirit a person is born again, receives eternal life, and is renewed. (H. Wayne House, Charts of Christian Theology).
c) Regeneration, or new birth, is an inner re-creating of fallen human nature by the gracious sovereign action of salvation. (Baker’s Dictionary of Theology).
2. Lexical Meaning of Regeneration
a) “Regeneration” occurs only twice in the NT. It is the Greek word palingenesía and literally means to be “born” (genesis) “again” (palin), reborn, or renewed.
b) In Mat 19:28, it is used of the “renewing” of the world, whereas in Tit 3:5 it is used of the spiritual birth of a soul.
3. Biblical Meaning of Regeneration
a) Regeneration is the sole work of the Holy Spirit and not man’s merits (Tit 3:5).
b) Regeneration emphasizes that the source of the new birth is from above (Jn 3:3,6).
(1) Jesus’ use of the term “born from above” (gennáō ánōthen) is the same concept of regeneration and emphasizes the origin of spiritual birth (Jn 3:3, 6).
(2) John uses the term six times in his first epistle (1Jn 2:29; 3:9; 4:7; 5:1,4,18).
(3) Thus, when we are first regenerated we are babes in Christ (1Pe 2:2).
c) Regeneration transforms us into a new creation (2Co 5:17).
d) Regeneration imparts a new nature or self (Eph 4:22-24)
e) Regeneration begins the new life, sanctification continues that new life (Phil 1:6; 2Co 4:16).
f) Regeneration is the basis in which we can live in newness of life (Ro 6:4; Col 3:10).
g) Regeneration is not accomplished through the will of man, but of God (Jn 1:12-13).
(1) Since regeneration is not accomplished by the will of man, faith is a simultaneous and a necessary by-product of regeneration.
(a) Reformed theology grants that God’s act of regeneration and the believer’s act of faith are simultaneous, not separated, with respect to time. (Sproul, R., Willing to Believe, pg. 193)
(2) The sinner receives not only a spiritual awakening but also the faith that is necessary for salvation (Eph 2:8 cp. Eph 2:5).
(a) “That” refers to the entire previous statement of salvation, not only the grace but the faith. Although men are required to believe for salvation, even that faith is part of the gift of God which saves and cannot be exercised by one’s own power. God’s grace is preeminent in every aspect of salvation (cf. Rom. 3:20; Gal. 2:16). (The MacArthur Study Bible in loc.).
B. The Holy Spirit Permanently Indwells The Believer.
1. The Concept of Indwelling
a) The indwelling of the Holy Spirit is the permanent residency of the Holy Spirit in the life of the believer, beginning at the moment of salvation. Indwelling is not the same as regeneration, sealing, filling or baptism, but its importance cannot be overestimated.
(1) The Bible uses the verb oikéō to illustrate this paramount indwelling ministry of the Holy Spirit upon which all His other ministries are based.
(2) This verb is connected with the noun, oikos, which means house, dwelling place, or temple (Rom 8:9, 11).
(3) God chose this word to reveal the blessed truth that the Holy Spirit indwells, lives in, and inhabits all believers as His temple (1Co 3:16).
(4) The Bible includes the preposition en, which means “in,” with the description of indwelling. Sometimes just the preposition is used by itself (1Co 6:19).
b) The indwelling of the Holy Spirit was promised by Christ to His disciples (Joh 14:16-17).
c) The indwelling of the Holy Spirit is a gift to the believer the moment he believes in Christ (Joh 7:38-39; Rom 5:5).
d) The indwelling of the Holy Spirit does not take place in the unbeliever (Rom 8:9; 1Co 2:14).
e) The indwelling of the Holy Spirit is not removed when the believer sins (1Co 5:5; 2Co 1:22) as in the OT.
2. Difficult Passage surrounding Indwelling
a) Acts 5:32 does not claim obedience is a condition for indwelling.
(1) The Holy Spirit is given to those who believe (Eph 1:13).
(2) Obedience also describes those who obey the Gospel message (Rom 1:5; Heb 5:9).
(3) The Pharisees did not receive and obey God’s revelation in Christ (Acts 5:33), therefore they did not receive the Holy Spirit.
b) Acts 8:14-20 does not support indwelling due to laying on of hands for today.
(1) The book of Acts finds itself in transition between the Old and New Testament.
(2) The laying on of hands was a sign to substantiate apostolic authority (Acts 8:19; Heb 2:4).
(3) Chronologically, by the time of Acts 10:44ff, we see the norm for receiving the Holy Spirit at the moment of faith.
(4) Nowhere in the NT is the laying on of hands a prerequisite for receiving the Holy Spirit.
c) Acts 19:1-6 does not teach a delay in receiving the Holy Spirit.
(1) To the contrary, these disciples were not believers because they had not even heard the message of the Gospel (vs. 2-5).
(2) Since theses disciples were not previously believers, they received the Holy Spirit when they believed the Gospel (vs. 5).
(3) In vs. 6, laying on of hands could be associated with just the sign gifts of the Holy Spirit, either way, Acts is to be viewed as a transitional period not a completed revelation on the Holy Spirit.
3. Application of Indwelling
a) [Indwelling]... means that whether or not we feel it, God the Holy Spirit lives within our beings constantly. This ought to give us (a) a sense of security in our relationship with God, (b) a motivation to practice that presence of God, and (c) a sensitivity to sins against God. Charles Ryrie
C. The Holy Spirit Eternally Seals The Believer.
1. Definitions of Sealing
a) [It is …] the abiding presence of the Holy Spirit as God’s seal testifying and guaranteeing that one will be kept safe in Christ forever (1 Cor. 12:13; Eph. 1:13-14). (Packer, Concise Theology)
b) The concept of sealing includes the ideas of ownership, authority, and security. Since God has sealed us, we are His possession, secure (unless there were someone with greater power than God Himself!) until the day of redemption. (Ryrie, Survey of Biblical Doctrine)
c) God’s own Spirit comes to indwell the believer and secures and preserves his eternal salvation. The sealing of which Paul speaks refers to an official mark of identification placed on a letter, contract, or other document. That document was thereby officially under the authority of the person whose stamp was on the seal. (The MacArthur Study Bible)
2. Explanation of Sealing
a) The Greek word for “seal” is sphragízō and meant a seal of some type that protected anything that you did not want tampered with. Typically, wax was melted onto a royal document and the official would make an imprint with his cylinder or ring in the hot wax. The seal came with authority and penalties if an unauthorized individual tampered with it (Rev 5:2, 9).
(1) Seals are spoken with regard to the Judgment seals in the book of Revelation (Rev 5:1; 6:1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12; 8:1).
(2) The sealing of the Holy Spirit shows the work of the Spirit, the Lord’s ownership of the believer, and the security of the believer.
b) The believer receives the Holy Spirit the moment he trusts in Christ. It is at that moment that the Holy Spirit seals the believers (Eph 1:13).
(1) Even though the believer is sealed by the Holy Spirit when he believes, sealing, is the work of the Holy Spirit upon the believer.
(2) Eph 1:13 states that the believer “was sealed” (esphragisthête - aorist passive, same word, tense, and voice used in Eph 4:30), meaning that sealing was accomplished from an outside agent (Holy Spirit) upon the believer.
c) The Holy Spirit is our seal (“sealed … with the Holy Spirit”), showing ownership of God over the believer (Eph 1:13-14; 2Co 1:22).
(1) A day of redemption is coming when the fact that we are God’s possession (Eph 1:14b) will be fully realized (Eph 4:30).
(2) Until that time, God has given His Spirit as a “seal” and a “pledge” that guarantees the inheritance and redemption of God’s possession (Eph 1:14).
d) Sealing by the Holy Spirit has reference to the believer’s eternal security (“given as a pledge of our inheritance” - Eph 1:14a).
(1) The Spirit has been given as a “pledge” (arrabōn - earnest payment in advance, promissory payment, down payment - 2Co 1:22) that we are His, we will be with Him in eternity, and that He will keep His promise of salvation to us (“Holy Spirit of promise” - Eph 1:13).
(2) The Holy Spirit seals the believer “unto” the day of redemption, when we go to be with the Lord (Eph 4:30). This includes the times when we are not faithful but grieve the Holy Spirit, including the carnality of the Corinthians (2Co 1:22).
3. If God Himself promised salvation and gives the Holy Spirit permanently to the believer as a pledge of that salvation, then who would have the authority or the power to unseal that believer (Mat 27:66; Joh 10:28-29)?
4. The sealing of the Holy Spirit exhorts the believer that his behavior is to be as holy as the one who marked him as God’s holy possession (1Co 6:18-20; Eph 4:30).
D. The Holy Spirit Spiritually Baptizes The Believer Into The Body Of Christ.
1. Definitions of the Baptism of the Holy Spirit.
a) [The baptism of the Holy Spirit] …is His mighty undertaking by which He joins the individual believer to Christ’s Body and thus to Christ Himself as the Head of the Body. (Chafer, Systematic Theology, Vol. 7, pg. 33)
b) The baptizing work of the Holy Spirit may be defined as that work whereby the Spirit places the believer into union with Christ and into union with other believers in the Body of Christ (1 Cor. 12:13). (Enns, The Moody Handbook of Theology)
2. The Spirit Baptizes All Believers into the body of Christ (1Co 12:13)
a) It is the Holy Spirit’s ministry to spiritually baptize the believer (“by one Spirit,” instrumental use of the preposition “en” cp. 1Co 12:3).
b) All believers are spiritually baptized the moment they exercise faith in Christ (“we were all”).
c) All believers are baptized “into one body,” namely the body of Christ, with all of the positional truths “in Christ” (Eph 1:3). Furthermore, the believer becomes a member of the body of Christ along with all believers (1Co 12:12; Eph 3:6).
d) All believers are empowered by the Holy Spirit to live victoriously and empowered for service to the Lord (“made to drink”).
3. The Spirit Baptizes All Believers into the Death and Resurrection of Christ (Rom 6:1-14)
a) The Holy Spirit positionally baptizes the believer into the death of Christ (Rom 6:3).
b) The Holy Spirit positionally baptizes the believer into the resurrection of Christ (Rom 6:4).
c) The purpose of these is twofold. The first is that the believer will not “continue in sin” (Rom 6:1-2). And the second is that the believer will “walk in newness of life” (Rom 6:4b).
(1) The spiritual principle behind being baptized by the Holy Spirit is that believers are “united” and in the “likeness” of Christ’s death and resurrection (Rom 6:5).
(2) To be united in Christ’s death means that our “old self” was crucified with Christ (Rom 6:6). It does not mean that we will not be affected by sin (Rom 7:15), but positionally, sin no longer has the dominant force in our lives.
(a) Sin is “done away with” (katergeō - rendered inoperative, Rom 6:6).
(b) Believers are no longer “slaves to sin” (Rom 6:6).
(c) Believers are “freed” from sin’s domination (Rom 6:7).
(3) To be united in Christ’s resurrection means that we will “live with Him” in His resurrection power (Rom 6:8)
(a) Death no longer has mastery over the believer (Rom 6:9).
(b) The believer can now live unto God (Rom 6:10).
d) There are several responses that the believer must make to work out his new spiritually baptized position.
(1) Rely (“consider” logizomai - reckon, count a fact as a fact) on the spiritual reality of spiritual baptism (Rom 6:11).
(2) Refuse to let sin reign in your life (Rom 6:12).
(3) Recommit yourself to Christ for His holy use (Rom 6:13).
(4) Remember that sin is not your master anymore (Rom 6:14).
4. There is Some Confusion Concerning Spiritual Baptism
a) Water baptism is not to be confused with spiritual baptism. Water baptism does not save or bring about spiritual baptism (Mar 16:16; 1Co 1:17; Eph 2:8-9). Spiritual baptism happens separately the moment a sinner places his faith in Christ for salvation. Water baptism is the outward symbol that spiritual baptism has already taken place.
b) There is only one spiritual baptism, not two or more.
(1) Contrary to Scripture, some have taught that there is a spiritual baptism at salvation and an additional spiritual baptism (“second blessing”) whereby believers experience power (Typically, it has been taught that speaking in tongues accompanies the latter.). However, each believer already possesses “every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ” (Eph 1:3 cp. Eph 3:20).
(2) Sometimes confused with the “Second Blessing,” the “Filling of the Holy Spirit,” (Eph 5:18 - filling is not getting more of the Spirit, but the Spirit getting more of us) is something altogether distinct and separate.
(3) There is not one spiritual baptism by the Holy Spirit for salvation (1Co 12:13) and another by Christ for power and tongues (Mat 3:11). Both are the divine agents of spiritual baptism just as in many other divine works that is accomplished by several members of the Trinity.
c) Speaking in tongues has to do with Spiritual Gifts of the Holy Spirit, not Baptism. It is biblically incorrect to say that everyone who is baptized by the Holy Spirit (the first or second time) will speak in tongues. Not everyone was given the gift of tongues (1Co 12:30) in the first century and tongues have since ceased (1Co 13:8c, “cease” - future middle of pauō - “tongues will fizzle out in and of themselves”, cp. He 2:3-4).
5. Applications of Spiritual Baptism
a) Even though water baptism and spiritual baptism are distinct and separate, the importance of both should not be diminished.
b) Because believers need to know about their position in Christ, spiritual baptism should be taught to every believer.
c) Because believers need to have victory over sin, they should understand spiritual baptism and their responsibility to walk in newness of life.
E. The Holy Spirit Fills the Believer in order to Control Him.
1. Definitions of the Filling of the Holy Spirit
a) The filling of the Holy Spirit is distinct from the other ministries of the Spirit inasmuch as it is conditional. Whereas ministries such as the indwelling, baptism, regenerating, and sealing are non-experiential and occur but once at the moment of conversion, the filling of the Spirit is experiential and also repeated. (Moody Handbook of Theology)
b) The filling of the Holy Spirit is the ministry of the Spirit whereby He has control of the believer due to the believer’s submission to the Holy Spirit. The spiritually filled believer then, does not grieve or quench the Spirit, but yields himself to the Spirit’s fruit and direction as set forth in the Scriptures by the Holy Spirit.
2. The Paramount Scripture on the Filling of the Holy Spirit (Eph 5:18)
a) In Eph 5, Paul gave a series of practical applications for living as children of God (Eph 5:1).
(1) They were to walk in love (Eph 5:2)
(2) They were not to live immorally as they formally did (Eph 5:3-8).
(3) They were to walk as children of the Light with the fruit of righteousness (Eph 5:9-14).
(4) They were to walk in wisdom about their lives and the will of God (Eph 5:15-17).
b) In verse 18a, Paul gave two commands, one negative and one positive. First they were not to “be getting drunk with wine.”
(1) This would apply as a warning to any believers who were sinning in this way, or a warning against falling into this temptation.
(2) It is a command in the Greek and one that they were to continually be on guard from.
(3) Paul explains why this is sin and what the result
is. He states that such behavior is equivalent to “dissipation.” The Greek
word is asōtía and means “the act of
one who has abandoned himself to reckless immoral behavior” (Friberg). An intoxicated person is one who acts
differently than when they are sober. Such recklessness is sin and sets the
stage for all kinds of other sins. Drunkenness has been one of the oldest
sins mentioned in the Bible (
c) From this negative command, Paul springboards to a positive command. Instead of being drunk, the believer is to be filled with the Spirit (18b).
(1) This also is a present command in the Greek and could literally be translated, “you all must continually be filled with the Spirit.”
(2) This is the only ministry of the Holy Spirit whereby the believer is commanded to participate.
(3) What exactly is filling? In the context of Eph 5:18, filling is being under the influence of the Holy Spirit. The believer is not to be under the influence of alcohol because a person responds out of control. If a believer is filled with the Spirit, he is responds according the influence of the Spirit and is under His control.
3. The Concept of the Filling of the Holy Spirit
a) In order to understand the filling of the Spirit, there are certain things we must understand that filling is not.
(1) Being filled with the Holy Spirit does not equate to an ecstatic experience before, during, or after being filled. Filling is the work of the Spirit by which the believer continually lives his Christian life under the influence of the Holy Spirit.
(2) Being filled with the Holy Spirit does not mean a person will be able to speak in tongues. The NT does record that some believers were filled with the Holy Spirit and also spoke in tongues. But nowhere does Scripture say that speaking in tongues is a by-product or an evidence of being filled with the Spirit. Rather the NT states that as a spiritual gift, tongues was not given to every believer (1Co 12:30).
(3) Being filled with the Holy Spirit does not mean that a believer receives extra-biblical revelation about the Lord’s will. In fact, Eph 5:17 argues that believers are not to be foolish (aphrōn - without the mind), but are to understand (suniêmi - to fit together in order to understand) the will of the Lord. The will of the Lord is perceived by understanding the Scriptures.
b) What actually is the filling of the Holy Spirit?
(1) Filling of the Holy Spirit is being under the influence and control of the Holy Spirit. It is not being out of control and doing wild acts in the name of the Holy Spirit. When the believer is under the control of the Spirit, he exhibits the fruit of the Spirit, which includes “self-control” (egkrateia - mastery over one’s self).
(2) Filling of the Holy Spirit means that a believer is under the control of the Holy Spirit by being under the control of the Spirit’s Word (2Pe 1:20-21). The Holy Spirit controls us through the Scriptures that He authored. In a sense, we can say that the reason the Holy Spirit gave us the Scriptures was to communicate and control the Spirit-filled believer.
(3) Filling of the Spirit means that the Holy Spirit has complete control over the believer. It does not mean that the believer receives more of the Holy Spirit. Rather filling means the Holy Spirit has more of the yielded believer. A believer is filled to the degree that he has yielded and submitted to the Lordship of Christ and His Word.
4. The Results of the Filling of the Holy Spirit
a) The context following Eph 5:18 gives us the results of the filling of the Spirit.
b) Saturated with Scripture: One of the results is that a believer is saturated with the Scriptures and thoughts about Scripture (Eph 5:19a). A Spirit-filled believer is allows the Scripture to dwell in him richly (Col 3:16). As a result it overflows in wisdom, teaching, and the encouragement with the Scriptures. This would also include speaking the word of God with boldness (Ac 4:31; 1Th 2:2).
c) Joy of the Holy Spirit: Another result is the spiritual joy of the Holy Spirit (Neh 8:10; 1Th 1:6) which is expressed by the melody and joy in the heart inwardly and outwardly (Eph 5:19). Note that the singing is spiritual in nature and revolves around Scripture
d) Giving Thanks: A believer filled with Holy Spirit exhibits a thankful attitude toward God in all things (1Th 5:18) and for all things (Eph 5:20), knowing that God is in control and that God works all things together for good, even trials and tribulations.
e) Attitude of Submission: Eph 5:21 continues to describe the behavior of a believer filled with the Holy Spirit by the word “subject” (hupotássō - arrange under, submission). A Spirit-filled believer obviously submits himself to the Lordship of Christ, but also to other believers in a desire to serve them and see them grow spiritually. This is the same subjection that a Spirit-filled wife is to have toward her husband (Eph 5:22-24); a Spirit-filled husband is to have toward Christ in regard to his wife (Eph 5:25-33) and his children (Eph 6:4); Spirit-filled children are to have toward their parents (Eph 6:1); employees and citizens have toward their employers (Eph 6:5-8) and authorities (Rom 13:1-7).
5. The Conditions of Continually being Filled with the Holy Spirit
a) Submit to the Lordship of Christ, the Spirit, and the Word of God moment by moment in every area of life (1Pe 3:15a; Luk 6:46; Eph 5:18 - 6:9).
b) Saturate your mind and life with the Word of God (Joh 15:5; Col 3:16)
c) Confess your sins immediately (1Jo 1:9; Pro 1:23)
d) Do not quench the Spirit (1Th 5:19).
e) Do not grieve the Spirit (Eph 4:30).
f) Walk by the Spirit (Gal 5:16, 25).
F. The Holy Spirit has a Teaching Ministry to and through the Believer.
1. The Holy Spirit’s Teaching Ministry in Reference to Christ
a) Jesus was anointed with the Holy Spirit to preach and teach (Isa 61:1 cp. Luk 4:18) as well as miracles in order to identify Him as the Messiah (Act 10:38; Act 12:38).
b) Jesus had an extensive teaching ministry (Mat 4:23; 5:2; 7:29; 11:1; 13:54; 21:23; 22:16, 33; 26:55; Mar 1:21,22, 27; 2:13; 4:1-2; 6:2, 6, 34; 8:31; 10:1; 11:17, 18; 12:14; 14:49; Luk 4:31-32; 5:3, 17; 6:6; 13:10, 22; 20:1; 21:27; 23:5; Joh 7:14, 16, 28; 8:2; 18:19)
c) Jesus, Himself was called a Teacher (Mat 8:19; 9:11; 12:38; 17:24; 19:16; 22:16, 24, 36; 26:18*; Mar 4:38; 5:35; 9:17; 10:17, 20, 35; 12:14, 19, 32; 13:1; 14:14; Luk 3:12; 7:40; 9:38; 10:35; 11:45; 12:13; 18:18; 19:39; 20:28, 39; 21:7; 22:11; Joh 1:38; 3:2; 8:4; 11:28; 13:13, 14; 20:16)
d) Jesus including teaching as part of the Great Commission (Mat 28:19-20).
2. The Holy Spirit’s Teaching Ministry in Reference to the Apostles
a) The Holy Spirit was promised to the apostles to teach them “all things” (Joh 14:26a).
b) The Holy Spirit would bring “all things” that Jesus said to the remembrance of the apostles. This ministry, specific only to the apostles, was the basis for divine inspiration (Joh 14:26b).
c) Jesus further explained what “all things” meant, however, they could not understand them without the Holy Spirit (Joh 16:12).
(1) The Holy Spirit’s teaching of “all things” would include (Joh 16:13-15):
(a) teaching and guidance into all truth, whether doctrinal or practical so that the apostles could teach the church and record them in the epistles without error (Joh 16:13a).
(b) teaching concerning future events and dispensations (Joh 16:13d).
(c) teaching concerning the person and work of Christ (Joh 16:14).
(d) teaching concerning the glories of the Father and the Son (Joh 16:15).
(2) The Holy Spirit energized the hearts and minds of the apostles in their ministry, helping them to produce the NT Scripture. The disciples had failed to understand many things about Jesus and what He taught; but because of this supernatural work, they came to an inerrant and accurate understanding of the Lord and His work, and recorded it in the gospels and the rest of the NT Scriptures (2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Pet. 1:20, 21). (MacArthur Study Bible, Joh 14:26)
3. The Holy Spirit’s Teaching Ministry in Reference to Believers
a) The Holy Spirit is the Believer’s Teacher (1Jo 2:27)
(1) The Holy Spirit teaches the believer “all things.” He takes His inspired writings of the apostles in the Scriptures and teaches the believer from them. He teaches believers concerning all truth (doctrinal and practical), concerning the person and work of Christ, concerning future events and dispensations, and the glories of the Father and the Son.
(2) He is the sole Teacher whether or not there is a teacher. This verse does not disregard the importance of biblical teachers.
(3) His teaching from the Scriptures, whether in regard to salvation or sanctification, contains no lies or contradictions.
b) The Holy Spirit teaches Believers of their position in Christ (1Co 2:9-16)
(1) Without salvation and the Holy Spirit, man cannot know God in and of himself (1Co 2:9).
(2) God must reveal Himself as well as the things freely given to the believer in salvation through the Spirit (1Co 2:10-11).
(3) The Holy Spirit reveals them to believers from the inspired Scriptures (1Co 2:12-13).
(4) Only a believer with the Holy Spirit can be taught spiritual truths through the spiritual words of Scripture and be conformed to the mind of Christ (1Co 2:14-16).
c) The Holy Spirit’s Teaching is Connected with His Filling (Col 3:16)
(1) When a believer is yielded to and thereby filled with the Holy Spirit, a by-product is that he is also filled richly with the Scriptures. This filling ministry of the Holy Spirit results in teaching through various modes of teaching, singing, or admonishing.
(2) Teaching is a normal by-product of the Christian life and is accomplished on many levels by all believers.
d) The Holy Spirit’s Teaching is Connected with certain Spiritual Gifts (Eph 4:11; Rom 12:7)
(1) The Holy Spirit is the divine agent, who distributes spiritual gifts. Many of those gifts are related with teaching and the teaching ministry of the Holy Spirit.
(2) The Spirit gave the gift of Pastor/Teacher (Eph 4:11), Teachers (Rom 12:7), and Exhortation (Rom 12:8).
4. Confusion on the tem “Anointing” with Reference to the Holy Spirit.
a) There has been much confusion over the tem “anointing” with reference to the Holy Spirit. Some believe the “anointing” is a special experience of the presence of God, a special connecting to God’s heart through another, or special teaching or preaching with fire.
b) 1Jo 2:27 tells us that “the anointing” is the Holy Spirit and He abides in the believer. Lewis Sperry Chafer states that anointing and indwelling is the same thing.
(1) Indwelling and anointing are synonymous terms in Pneumatology and therefore depend on the same body of Scripture for their exact meaning.
(2) The anointing (i.e. Holy Spirit) teaches all believers about “all things” in the Scriptures.
c) In 1Jo 2:19-20, the difference between a true believer and an apostate is that the believer possesses the Holy Spirit, who is referred to as the “anointing.” The reason why the believer has spiritual perseverance is because he has spiritual discernment through the teaching ministry of the Holy Spirit.
d) In 2Co 1:21-22 it is clear again that “the anointing” is the Holy Spirit who not only indwells every believer but seals them as well. He is also a pledge and a deposit guaranteeing the believer’s eternal security.
e) Therefore, the “anointing” with reference to the Holy Spirit, is not simply a metaphor used in connection with any occasion deemed spiritual (usually followed by an exhibition of manifestations of tongues and or healings) or a special teaching that presents new truths (many times unbiblical teachings) in the name of the Holy Spirit. Rather, anointing is a metaphor for the indwelling of the Holy Spirit upon which all His other ministries are based, including teaching.
G. The Holy Spirit Produces His Fruit in the Believer
1. In chapters 5-6, Paul taught the Galatians that the believer’s freedom from the Law (cp. Gal 2:16) was not a license to sin. Rather, it was to be a life, through the power of the Holy Spirit, which manifested itself in the fruit of the Spirit and not the works of the flesh (Gal 5:16, 19-21).
2. The Greek word for “fruit” is karpós and is obviously used quite often in its literal sense from Classical Greek to Koine Greek where it means the produce of trees and vines (LXX Gen 1:11-12; Jam 5:18). It is however, used for spiritual fruit, which fruit (singular of unity) is produced by the Holy Spirit in the believer’s life as he yield’s moment by moment to the Spirit’s influence. The Spirit’s fruit is completely different from the deeds of the flesh (Gal 5:19-21) and is described by nine characteristics: love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control (Gal 5:22-23).
a) Love is the Greek word agape and is the highest form of love that is selfless and seeks to benefit another. It is the first characteristic of the fruit of the Spirit in Gal 5:22-23.
b) It is the self-sacrificial love of God manifested in Christ (Rom 5:8; Joh 3:16).
c) It is communicated to man by Christ’s example (1Jo 4:9-10; Joh 15:13-14).
d) It is the supreme virtue taught in the Scriptures (1Co 13:13; Gal 5:14).
e) It is commanded to all believers at a higher level (Joh 15:12; 17).
f) It is to be the distinguishing mark of every believer (Joh 13:34-35; 1Jo 4:7-8).
g) It is received and appropriated through the Holy Spirit (Col 1:4, 8).
a) Joy (chara) is not synonymous with happiness in that happiness depends on outward circumstances. Joy on the other hand has a settled inner well-being no matter what the circumstance because it is right with God and knows that God works all things for good.
b) Jesus possesses a joy that He shares with all who abide in him (Joh 15:11; 16:22).
c) The Holy Spirit produces joy in those whom He fills (Act 13:52).
d) Heaven has joy when a sinner is brought to Christ (Luk 15:10 cp. Luk 10:20).
e) The believer finds joy in meditating on the Scriptures (Jer 15:16; Psa 19:8)
f) The believer has joy in trials because of God’s purposes (1Pe 1:5-7; Heb 12:2).
g) The believer is strengthened when his joy is serving the Lord (Neh 8:10).
a) The New Testament word for “peace” is eirếnê and its basic root means a state or time of peace (Luk 14:31-32; opposite of pólemos - war). It is also the religious disposition characterized by inner rest, harmony, and freedom from anxiety (Rom 15:13).
b) There is “peace with God” when a sinner trusts Christ for salvation (Rom 5:1).
c) And there is the “peace of God” that comes by prayer and faith in God’s sovereignty (Phil 4:6-7).
d) Peace from the Lord is different from the world’s peace (Joh 14:27).
e) The Holy Spirit provides peace in every circumstance (2Th 3:16).
f) Peace is the arbitrating principle in the body of Christ (Col 3:15; Eph 4:3).
g) The believer is to seek peace but not at the expense of the truth (Mt 10:34).
a) The Greek word for patience is makrothumía and literally means “long (makrós) passion or anger” (thumós - boiling point or fuse). [Patience] relates to one’s attitude toward others and involves a refusal to retaliate or work vengeance for wrong received. (Wycliffe Bible Commentary)
b) Patience demonstrates God’s forbearing and merciful heart (1Ti 1:16; 2Pe 3:9).
c) The believer’s life is to be characterized with patience and forbearance (Eph 4:1-3; Col 3:12-13).
d) The believer’s response is non-retaliatory towards those who inflict pain (Jam 5:10-11).
e) The believer is to exercise great patience in teaching, even towards those who reject the truth (2Ti 2:24; 4:2).
a) The Greek word for kindness is chrestótês and comes from chrế which has at its root the idea of that which is fitting and useful (Luk 5:39). Morally speaking, it refers to one who is “upright,” “decent,” and “morally good” (1Co 15:33). It is especially used to describe one who is good-hearted, gracious, gentle, clement, and benign of ill-treatment, even toward those who do not deserve it.
b) God himself is not only kind, but kind to those who are ungrateful and evil (Luk 6:35).
c) The kindness of the Lord is the saving work experienced by believers (Tit 3:4-5; 1Pe 2:3; Eph 2:7).
d) The believer is to be kind and forgiving just as he was extend kindness by God (Eph 4:32 cp. 1Co 13:4).
a) “Goodness” comes from the Greek word agathōsúnê (from agathós) and denotes a quality of moral excellence (Rom 5:7; 15:14). Goodness may be thought of both as an uprightness of soul and as an action reaching out to others to do good even when it is not deserved.
b) Goodness describes an attribute of God (1Ch 16:34; Ps 135:3; cp. Psa 84:11).
c) Goodness is a synonym for edification, the goal for believers (Rom 15:2; Eph 4:29)
d) Goodness is an aspect of the fruit of the Spirit produced in the believer (Gal 5:22; Act 11:24).
e) Believers are to do good to all people, especially believers (Gal 6:10; 3Jo 1:11; cp. Eph 2:10).
a) Faithfulness (pistos) means that a person is reliable and trustworthy; therefore another can trust that person to do a certain thing. This first and foremost applies to Christ, but is a quality that the Holy Spirit produces in the believer.
b) God is faithful in His promises (Deu 7:9), in His security (Deu 32:4), and in His mercy (Lam 3:23; 1Jo 1:9).
c) Faithfulness is a quality that men need to possess in being spiritual leaders (2Ti 2:2; Tit 1:9).
d) Faithfulness is a quality that women need to possess in being spiritual encouragers and spiritual examples to other women (1Ti 3:11; Pro 14:5).
e) Believers are to be faithful in meeting the needs of others (3Jo 1:5).
f) The faithfulness of believers, like their Lord, is to be unto death (Rev 2:10).
a) Gentleness (praútês) is a gentle friendliness and consideration. It is both an outward and an inward disposition that is exercised to all men in all situations.
b) Christ came in gentleness to those who turned to Him (Mat 11:28-30).
c) Gentleness is an evidence of true believers in Christ (Col 3:12; Tit 3:2).
d) Believers are to actively and continuously pursue gentleness (1Ti 6:11).
e) Believers are to correct those who have sinned with gentleness (Gal 6:1).
f) Believers are to correct opposers to the faith with gentleness (2Ti 2:24-25).
a) “Self-control” (egkráteia) takes its sense from the stem krat, which expresses the power or lordship which one has either over oneself or over something. Perhaps the addition of the preposition en (“in”) would suggest the meaning of one who is “in control.”
b) Self-control is needed in order to restrain sensual appetites (Gal 5:19-21; 1Co 7:9).
c) Self-control is needed in order to fulfill our God-given responsibilities (1Co 9:25).
d) Self-control is needed by all believers, but especially by spiritual leaders (Tit 1:8-9).
e) Self-control is needed to put into practice what we learn from the Scriptures (2Pe 1:6).
f) Self-control is needed to be under the control of the Holy Spirit and the Lordship of Christ (Eph 5:18).
H. The Holy Spirit Distributes Spiritual Gifts to the Believer
1. Definition of Spiritual Gifts
a) A spiritual gift is a God-given ability for service. (Ryrie, C. C. (1995, c1972). A Survey of Bible Doctrine. Chicago: Moody Press.)
b) A spiritual gift is a divine endowment of a special ability for service upon a member of the body of Christ. (William McRae, The Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976), p. 18.)
c) [A] spiritual gift must not be regarded, then, as an enlargement of natural powers, but a supernatural gift bestowed in keeping with the purpose of God in placing that individual in the body of Christ. (Walvoord, John F., A.M., Th.D.; THE HOLY SPIRIT; Grand Rapids: Dunham Publishing Co.; 1958, p 167).
2. Concept of Spiritual Gifts
a) The Holy Spirit’s ministry is to oversee and distribute spiritual gifts to believers as He determines (1Co 12:4, 11). The Holy Spirit gives spiritual gifts at the moment of salvation (Eph 1:13; 1Co 12:13).
b) Spiritual gifts then are a ministry of the Holy Spirit just as are Regeneration (Tit 3:5), Indwelling (1Co 3:16), and Sealing (Eph 4:30).
c) The chief purpose of spiritual gifts is edification (building up of the body of Christ), bringing the body of Christ to spiritual maturity (1Co 12:7; Eph 4:11-12). The Greek word for “edification” is oikōdomên and is used seven times in 1Co 14:3-5, 12, 17, 26. Oikōdomên comes from two Greek words, oikos-house & domê-build. Literally it means to “build a house.”
3. Difference between Permanent and Temporary Gifts
a) Permanent spiritual gifts are particular divine enablements that edify the church and continue throughout the Church Age.
b) Temporary spiritual gifts were particular divine enablements that confirmed revelation from God and authenticated the apostolic ministry during the apostolic period in the 1st Cent. When the canon of Scripture was completed, Scripture itself became self-authenticating. Temporary spiritual gifts were:
(1) Revelatory in that they were revealed by God as the foundational truth which established the early church in absence of the New Testament (apostles, prophets, knowledge, etc.) (Eph 3:5; Joh 12:16; 14:26).
(2) Confirmatory in that they were given to the Church in order to confirm God's message, messengers and mission (healing, miracles, tongues & interpretation of tongues, etc.) (Heb 2:4; 2Co 12:12; Act 8:6-7)
(3) Transitory in that they were bona-fide gifts for a limited time. Speaking in tongues has not been the norm from a historical viewpoint since the end of the first century A.D. (1Co 13:8; 1Co 1:22).
(4) Abrogatory in that they were divinely annulled at the completion of the New Testament (Deu 4:2; Pro 30:6; Rev 22:18).
4. Temporary Spiritual Gifts
a) Apostleship (1Co 12:28; Eph 4:11)
(1) The office of apostleship was: commissioned by the resurrected Christ (Luk 6:13; [Paul - Act 9:6, 15]), to those who had seen the resurrected Christ (Act 1:21-22; [Paul - 1Co 9:1]), and empowered by the resurrected Christ (2Co 12:12, [Paul - Act 28:8-9]).
(2) The spiritual gift of apostleship was revelatory (Gal 1:1, 12), confirmatory (Act 5:12; 2Co 12:12), and declaratory (Eph 2:20; Ro 16:25-26; Act 2:42; 2Pe 3:2; Jud 1:17).
(3) There was no succession of the office and spiritual gift of apostleship after the death of the last apostle at the end of the 1st Cent.
b) Prophecy (1Co 12:10, 28; Rom 12:6; Eph 4:11)
(1) Like apostles, prophets also laid the foundation of the church (Eph 2:20 cp. Eph 4:11-12).
(2) They received their message through special revelation and were 100% accurate (Deu 18:20). Revelation was declared in both fore-telling (Act 15:32) and forth-telling (Act 11:27-28; Act 21:10-11; 2Pe 1:20-21).
(3) Some hold that the gift of prophecy has ceased because there is no need for forth-telling (1Co 14:29-33, 37-38) due to the completion of canon.
(4) Similarly, others hold that the gift of prophecy is for today but only in the sense of forth-telling, not fore-telling.
c) Word of Wisdom And of Knowledge (1Co 12:8)
(1) The word of wisdom was the revelation of divine doctrine whereas the word of knowledge was the revelation of divine truth applied in practical ways (2Pe 3:15-16).
(2) It is erroneous to view them as intuitive knowledge of diseases or sickness, or to view them mystically as a personal revelation beyond universal biblical principles (i.e. “received a word from the Lord” cp. 2Tim 3:16-17).
d) Distinguishing of Spirits (1Co 12:10)
(1) Distinguishing of spirits was the ability to discern the validity of supernatural revelation in oral form (i.e. true prophet vs. false prophet cp. Act 13:10).
(2) Today all believers are given discernment by the Holy Spirit through the Scriptures (1Jo 2:27). Scripture provides its own test through which believers can “test the spirits” (1Jo 4:1-2; 2Co 11:14-15; 1Th 5:21).
e) Gifts of Healing (1Co 12:9, 28)
(1) Healing was a spiritual gift that enabled a person to heal another with physical infirmities in order to authenticate the messenger and message (Mat 10:1; Act 3:6-8 cp. 4:10; 5:15-16; 8:6-7; 9:34; 28:8).
(2) God still heals, and He heals through the prayers of his people (Jam 5:15). However, he does not heal anymore in this dispensation through the spiritual gift of healing.
f) Effecting of Miracles (1Co 12:10)
(1) The effecting of miracles was a spiritual gift of working supernatural signs and wonders. Jesus and the apostles performed miracles to confirm that God was working though him (Act 2:22; 6:8; 9:36-42; 20: 7-12; Heb 2:3-4).
(2) God still performs miracles, but not through miracle workers.
g) Various Kinds of Tongues and Interpretation of Tongues (1Co 12:10, 28, 30)
(1) Tongues was another sign gift that has ceased (1Co 13:8). The true gift of tongues was speaking in a foreign language formerly unknown to the speaker (Act 2:6, 11 - dialektos).
(2) The Greek word for “cease” comes from pauō and means to cease from an activity or state, bring to an end, (Lk 8:24 “stopped”; Lk 11:1 “finished”; Act 20:1 “ceased”).
(3) The verb “cease” (paúsontai) is in the middle voice and means it will act upon itself to cease without some other agent causing it to cease, i.e. tongues would cease when they accomplished their purpose in the 1st Cent.
(4) …in general, in the middle voice, the subject performs or experiences the action expressed by the verb in such a way that emphasizes the subject’s participation. ….if there are tongues, they will cease [on their own] (Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics 414, 422).
(5) In his commentary on 1 Co. regarding tongues John Chrysostom (345-407) writes, “This whole place is very obscure: but the obscurity is produced by our ignorance of the facts referred to and by their cessation, being such as then used to occur but now no longer takes place.” (Hom. 29.1).
(6) Tongues confirmed: 1) The message of salvation (Act 2:14ff); 2) Salvation to Gentiles (Act 11:15-18); 3) Judgment to unbelieving Jews (1Co 14:21-22).
(7) Interpretation was the ability to translate an unlearned, common language expressed in the assembly (1Co 14:27).
5. Permanent Spiritual Gifts
a) The Gift of Faith (1Co 12:9)
(1) Some have suggested that the spiritual gift of faith is one of the Temporary Spiritual Gifts. Yet many who hold to the concept of Temporal Gifts consider this a Permanent Gift.
(2) Faith (pístis) can mean trust, belief, the Christian faith, or conviction.
(3) As a Permanent Gift, faith could be defined as a special ability to lay claim on the promises of God in regard to God’s provisions and purposes. It is distinct from a believer’s saving faith.
(4) We see biblical examples in Paul's faith when he exhibited extraordinary confidence in God (Phil 1:22-25) and in Stephen's faith, which was fixed upon God (Act 6:15).
(5) Historical examples of the gift of faith are George Mueller and Hudson Taylor.
(6) All believers are exhorted to have faith in prayer (Mat 21:22; Jam 5:16-18), faith that comes by hearing the Word of God (Rom 10:17), and faith to walk the Christian life (Col 2:6).
b) The Gift of Helps or Serving (1Co 12:28; Rom 12:7)
(1) In 1Co 12:28 it is the gift of "helps" (antílêmpsis- to take a burden on oneself for another). In Rom 12:7, the gift is called the gift of "service" (diakonía - to "run errands" and means to serve or minister, especially to those in need).
(2) McRae defines “helps” as the special ability to serve faithfully behind the scenes, in practical ways, to assist in the work of the Lord, encourage, and strengthen others spiritually.
(3) Biblical examples of helps or service are seen in the first Deacons (Acts 6:1-4), Stephanas who opened his home in hospitality and worship (1 Cor 16:15-18), and Phoebe (Rom 16:1).
(4) All believers are exhorted to serve and be servants (Mar 10:45; Mat 20:26-27; Phil 2:5-8).
c) The Gift of Administration (1Co 12:28; Rom 12:8)
(1) In 1Co 12:28 the word (kubérnêsis) lit. means "the skill with which a pilot guides a ship." In Rom 12:8, the word is proístêmi, and means to set before or in front of, put oneself at the head, to influence others to follow a recommended course of action.
(2) Administration or Leading is the God-given capacity to organize and administer with such efficiency and spirituality that not only is the project brought to a satisfactory conclusion but it is done harmoniously and with evident blessing. (McRae)
(3) A biblical example of administration would include Titus who was exhorted to “straighten out” the church in Crete by appointing spiritual leaders (Tit 1:5).
(4) All believers are exhorted to be diligent over the areas and individuals that God has placed in their sphere of ministry (Pr 6:6-11; Eph 5:16; 2Ti 2:2; Ac 20:28; 1Ti 3:4-5, 12).
d) The Gift of Mercy (Rom 12:8)
(1) Mercy (eleéō) means to feel sympathy with the misery of another, to show kindness or concern for someone in need, to take pity, showing mercy.
(2) The gift of mercy is the spiritual ability to see the needs of all kinds of sickness and afflictions and be internally and externally moved to compassionate action.
(3) Jesus exemplified the gift of mercy when he was moved by a shepherdless people (Mt 9:36), felt compassion towards huge crowds needing to be cured (Mat 14:14), and moved with compassion by the hungry masses (Mat 15:32).
(4) All believers are exhorted to exemplify mercy and comfort (2Co 1:3-4), possess compassion (Col 3:12), and not grow weary in ministering to the needs of others (Gal 6:9-10).
e) The Gift of Giving (Rom 12:8)
(1) This gift is only found in Rom 12:8. The word for “gives” is metadídōmi and means to share with, or transfer something to another (LXX Pr 11:26 not hoard but impart).
(2) A believer with the gift of giving has the capacity to give of his substance to the work of the Lord or to the people of God consistently, liberally, sacrificially, and with such wisdom and cheerfulness that others are encouraged and blessed (McRae).
(3) Barnabas perhaps had the gift of giving (Act 4:35-37) but Ananias was the antithesis (Act 5:1-11) of the gift of giving.
(4) All believers are exhorted to give regularly (1Co 16:2a), proportionately (1Co 16:2b), generously (2Co 9:6), purposefully, not grudgingly, and cheerfully (2Co 9:7-8).
f) The Gift of Exhortation (Rom 12:8)
(1) “Exhortation” from parakaléō, lit. means to “call” (kaléō) “alongside” (pará), or encourage (Act 15:31), comfort (2Co 1:3-4 cp. Joh 14:16), and appeal (Rom 12:1; 2Ti 4:2; Tit 1:9).
(2) Differing from teaching in that it is an appeal for action, exhortation is the practical aspect of a preaching [or teaching] ministry. Some are given a special gift in this work, enabling them to lead Christians into the active realization of the will of God (Walvoord). [Italicized mine.]
(3) Exhorting involves encouraging, comforting, and admonishing people...teaching may or may not involve exhortation, and contra wise exhortation may or may not involve teaching (Ryrie).
(4) Barnabas, “Son of Encouragement” (Act 4:36 - paráklêsis), had the gift of “exhortation” (cp. Act 15:35-41; 2Ti 4:11). All are believers are to encourage one another (1Th 5:11; Heb 10:25).
g) The Gift of Evangelism (Eph 4:11)
(1) The gift of evangelism, from euaggelizō, means to announce the good news.
(2) The evangelist has the capacity to present the gospel with exceptional clarity and an overwhelming burden (McRae).
(3) The evangelist is the special proclaimer of the good news that God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself (Billy Graham).
(4) Paul had the heart of an evangelist (Rom 1:16; 15:20) and Philip was an evangelist (Act 21:8).
(5) All believers are commissioned to Evangelism (Mt 28:19-20), ambassadors of Evangelism (2Co 5:18-20), and co-laborers in the church’s ministry of Evangelism (Acts 2:47).
h) The Gift of Teaching (Rom 12:7; 1Co 12:28; Eph 4:11)
(1) The Greek word "teacher" is didaskalos and means one who teaches, but also is a title for “Master/Teacher”, the Jewish equivalent being "rabbi" ("my great one" Joh 1:38).
(2) A person with the gift of teaching will ...have a keen interest in the personal study of the Word... [and will] have the capacity to communicate clearly the truths and applications of the Word so others may learn and profit (McRae).
(3) Apollos is one of the greatest examples of the gift of teaching (Act 18:24-28), being “mighty in the Scriptures” teaching them “accurately”, “boldly”, polemically, and “powerfully”.
(4) All believers are to teach in one way or another through discipleship (Mat 28:19-20 cp. Tit 2:1-5) and spiritual leadership (1Ti 3:2). It is a sign of maturity (Heb 5:12) and the Holy Spirit’s ministry (Joh 14:26; 1Jo 2:27).
i) The Gift of Pastor-Teacher (Eph 4:11)
(1) Pastor-teacher is a combined gift (“teacher” is anarthrous and without the conjunction de) of both a Pastor and teacher (i.e. Pastor/Teacher).
(2) The Pastor-teacher is a “shepherd” (poimen) and a “teacher” (didaskalos). He is one who tends the flock of God through teaching the Word of God.
(3) One with the gift of pastor-teacher has the God-given ability to feed, lead, and give heed to the flock of God. One may be a gifted teacher without being a pastor, but one may not be a pastor without being a teacher. These are two aspects of one gift (McRae).
(4) Jesus is the Great Shepherd (Heb 13:20; Mar 6:34). Paul was the great example (1Th 2:7-13).
(5) It would be someone whose passion, emphasis, and ministry are to study and expositionally teach God's Word in the local church in order to equip and edify the saints (Eph 4:11-16; Joh 21:15-17).
VIII. THE HOLY SPIRIT’S MINISTRY IN THE FUTURE
A. The Holy Spirit and Eschatology
1. This particular aspect of the Holy Spirit is usually not included in Pneumatology. In fact, there have been very few who have even written about it (Walvoord, Ryrie, and Gromacki).
2. This is puzzling because the Holy Spirit’s ministries do not cease after the church is taken up to be with the Lord. And in some respect, some of his most extensive work will take place in the future.
3. Perhaps the reason for so little being written about it is that in order to have a future view of the Holy Spirit one must be of the eschatological view that there is going to be future dispensations. For example, a Post-Millennial View believes that the millennium is taking place now or will take place in this age. Therefore, the Holy Spirit’s present ministries continue to be the same. The Amillennial View does not include a Millennium in its theology and therefore sees no change in the Spirit’s ministries. Only the Pre-Millennial View holds to distinct dispensations where the Holy Spirit’s ministries will change to some degree.
B. The Holy Spirit’s Restraining Ministry will be Removed at the Rapture
1. As was mentioned earlier in the notes (VI. THE HOLY SPIRIT’S MINISTRY IN THE WORLD; B. The Holy Spirit Has a Restraining Ministry in the World - 2Th 2:6-7), the Holy Spirit is the acting “restrainer” (katéchō - lit. “hold down” or hold back) on sin in the world today. Only a divine Person, such as the Holy Spirit, can restrain sin. However, 2Th 2:7 states that at some point the “restrainer” will be “taken out of the way” in the future.
2. Since the Holy Spirit permanently indwells the church, He will not be taken out of the way until the church is taken up at the Rapture (1Th 4:16-17). When the Restrainer is removed, sin (Gen 6:3; Joh 16:8-11) and the Anti-Christ (2Th 2:8) will no longer be restrained. With the presence of the Anti-Christ and without the Restrainer, sin and evil will characterize the Tribulation Period (Rev 9:20-21; 11:7; 17:4).
C. The Holy Spirit will have Limited Ministry During the Tribulation
1. It will be a Limited ministry
a) When the Holy Spirit is removed, He is removed in a special ministry sense with the church.
b) He cannot be permanently removed because He is God and is omni-present. However His work during the Tribulation will be limited.
2. There will be Salvation
a) Contrary to the popular misconception that all individuals are irrevocably lost during the Tribulation, some individuals will be saved. Though the percentage of believers will be substantially lower than at present, both Jews (Rev 7:4 cp. Rom 11:25) and Gentiles (Rev 7:9, 14) will be saved. Since regeneration, is presently the work of the Holy Spirit (Tit 3:5), it is inferred that it is the Holy Spirit who will regenerate and save believers during the Tribulation.
b) However, Walvoord concludes that the Holy Spirit will not have the special ministry of indwelling which He uniquely has with the church. Otherwise, the ministry of restraining in the Tribulation would be like His present restraining ministry. He likens the ministry of the Holy Spirit during the Tribulation to that of the Old Testament. The Spirit will fill and empower believers for special purposes and service.
3. There will be Spiritual Gifts
a) There apparently will be some degree of spiritual gifts from the Holy Spirit in the Tribulation.
b) The two witnesses will prophecy (Rev 11:3) God’s revelation and will perform signs and wonders (Rev 11:5-6), both ministries of the Holy Spirit.
D. The Holy Spirit will have an Unlimited Ministry During the Millennium
1. Reference to Joel 2:28-32
a) Peter made a reference to Joel 2:28-32 on the Day of Pentecost (Act 2:16-21). Peter was explaining the gift of tongues given by the Holy Spirit which accompanied His coming (Act 1:4-5 cp. 2:1-4, 6).
b) Peter’s reference to Joel 2 was a partial fulfillment on the Day of Pentecost. But the complete fulfillment of Joel 2 takes place in the Millennium. For the filling of sky and earth with blood, fire, or smoke has never taken place in this age (Most likely a reference to the Tribulation just prior to Christ’s Second Coming).
2. The Spirit will be Poured Out on all Mankind
a) This will take place during the Millennium when everyone who initially enters into the Kingdom will be saved and will have the Spirit poured out on them (Act 2:17-18 cp. Joel 2:28-29).
b) The Spirit will be poured out in the sense that God will “put His Law on their hearts,” “they will not teach,” they will “all know Him,” and their sin “will be remembered no more” (Jer 31-34 - New Covenant). This and other Scriptures encompass the idea of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (cp. Eze 26:26-27).
3. The Spirit will Restrain
a) The Millennium will be a time when Christ will rule and reign as King (Psa 2:7-8). The government will be upon His shoulders (Isa 9:6).
b) Since people will be born during the Millennium, and since they will still have a sinful nature (even though Satan will be bound - Rev 20:2), there will be sin. However it will be dealt with immediately by the King (Isa 11:4; Jer 23:5).
c) The work of the Spirit will correlate with that of Christ’s and it is deducted that He will resume a restraining ministry in the Millennium.
4. The Spirit will Give Spiritual Gifts
a) The Spirit, who will be poured out in the Millennium, apparently will widely distribute spiritual gifts.
b) There will be prophesying, visions, and dreams manifested upon all the inhabitants of the Millennium, i.e. young, old, men, and women (Act 2:17-18 cp. Joel 2:28-29).
5. The Spirit will Regenerate and Save
a) Again, since there will be people born in the Millennium, they will not be automatically saved, but will need to trust in Christ’s atonement for salvation.
b) The promise is given in the Millennium just as in our present age, “THAT EVERYONE WHO CALLS ON THE NAME OF THE LORD WILL BE SAVED” (Act 2:21 cp. Joel 2:32; cp. Rom 10:12-13; 1Co 1:2).
c) It is the Holy Spirit’s ministry of regeneration in salvation and many will be saved through Him in the Millennium.
E. The Holy Spirit’s Ministry in Eternity
1. There is very little if anything written in the Scriptures concerning the Holy Spirit’s ministry in eternity.
2. However, many inferences can be made from the particular ministries of the Spirit in the present age to His ministry in eternity.
a) Spiritual transformation is by the Holy Spirit (2Co 3:18 cp. 1Joh 3:2).
b) Spiritual fellowship is through the Holy Spirit (2Co 13:14; Eph 2:18).
c) Spiritual life is from the Holy Spirit (Joh 7:38-39 cp. Rev 21:6).
d) Spiritual understanding is by the Holy Spirit (1Co 2:10-11cp. 1Co 13:12).
e) Spiritual service is through the Holy Spirit (Rom 7:6 cp. Rev 22:3).
f) Spiritual glory is from the Holy Spirit (Rom 8:16-18 cp. Col 3:4).